The Characterization of Nanocellulose with Various Durations and NaOH Concentration

Pengki Suanto, Saloma, Arie Putra Usman, Anis Saggaff, Mohammad Ismail, Nur Hafizah A Khalid


Nanotechnology has become an important part of industrial construction, especially in concrete structural materials. Additionally, waste is a severe environmental problem when using paper can impact waste caused by waste. The inner nanocellulose is sourced from paper waste and then synthesized using natrium hydroxide (NaOH) and natrium hypochlorite (NaClO). Nanocellulose from waste paper was synthesized with a 5%, 10%, and 15% NaOH solution and a 2% NaClO solution with variations in heating time (2 hours, 4 hours, and 6 hours) at a temperature of 125C. The physical, chemical, and microstructural properties were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX), and Fourier-transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The XRD results show a higher amorphous percentage after chemical synthesis. A 15% concentration heated for 6 hours, resulted in 79.68% amorphous content, and the lowest amorphous percentage in 5% NaOH with a heating duration of 4 hours, resulting in 63.69% amorphous content. Conversely, if added, acid can reduce the amorphous content and increase the crystal structure. The results of the FT-IR analysis show that treatment using NaOH and NaClO can remove lignin and hemicellulose structures in cellulose fibers. The SEM results show that the size of the structure is smoother and cleaner after treatment with NaOH and NaClO. The results of the EDX test show that with the NaOH and NaClO treatment, the chemical content was close to the chemical content of OPC. Thus, nanocellulose can be used as a substitute for some cement materials in concrete mixtures.


Pengki Suanto
Saloma (Primary Contact)
Arie Putra Usman
Anis Saggaff
Mohammad Ismail
Nur Hafizah A Khalid
Suanto, P. ., Saloma, Usman, A. P., Saggaff, A. ., Ismail, M., & Khalid, N. H. A. (2022). The Characterization of Nanocellulose with Various Durations and NaOH Concentration. International Journal of Innovative Research and Scientific Studies, 5(1), 18–29.

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