This article focuses on the spatiotemporal evolution characteristics of the efficiency of the express delivery industry in 31 provinces in China from 2011 to 2019. Since the express delivery business contributes significantly to the improvement of industrial structure and economic competitiveness, the temporal and spatial characteristics of its efficiency are crucial. In this paper, a three-stage SBM model is adopted to analyze the efficiency. The following are the findings: First, the express delivery industry is significantly affected by the external environment and also by random factors. The optimization of the industrial structure will reduce the input redundancy, and the improvement of the Internet level will lead to input redundancy. Second, China's eastern, central, and western regions have the same overall efficiency change trend in the express delivery industry, with the highest in the central region, followed by the eastern region, and the lowest in the western region. Third, the technical efficiency of the express delivery industry is mainly affected by its scale efficiency. Our research results provide an empirical basis for government policies and social-related investments.