This study focuses on the relationship between learning motivation, career identity, and learning engagement of state-funded normal university students in Guangdong Province, China. Through intentional sampling, 1449 state-funded normal university students from 10 universities in the Guangdong Province of China were taken as the research objects. Then, reliability and validity analysis, descriptive statistical analysis, difference analysis, correlation analysis, regression analysis, structural equation analysis, the interview method, and other statistical methods are used for analysis. There is a significant positive correlation between learning motivation, professional identity, and learning engagement of state-funded normal university students, and professional identity plays an intermediary role. The results show that the learning motivation of state-funded normal university students has a significant positive effect on professional identity and learning engagement. Furthermore, the professional identity of state-funded normal university students has a significant positive effect on learning engagement; meanwhile, professional identity serves as a partial mediator between learning motivation and learning engagement of state-funded normal university students. Due to the insufficient research level of researchers, there are limited study samples, limited study variables, and limited research methods. This study will improve the quality of education and teaching, stimulate teachers' career development potential, and promote education reform and development. It also fills the research gap, deepens the study theory of learning motivation, and optimize the training mode of state-funded normal university students.