Lots of empirical studies related to teacher professional development (TPD) so far have been conducted widely and have been implemented on elementary teachers. However, the focus on the TPD programs using professional learning communities (PLC) to develop Madrasah Ibtidaiyah (MI) teacher professionalism in scientific literacy skills has not been carried out massively. The purpose of this empirically current study is to analyze and describe the role of PLC in carrying out the TPD activities for MI teachers in scientific literacy skills. This study employed a grounded theory design to adopt a qualitative approach, involving a total of 20 participants who were MI teachers. To collect the data, some open questions were listed, and a structured interview was administered to participants. Three coding phases, such as open, axial, and selective coding, were applied to analyze the data. Results showed that there were three main roles of PLC in holding TPD programs for MI teachers, such as implementing TPD activities, TPD modelling, and improving teacher competences. All of the PLC roles in holding the TPD programs are projected to develop MI teacher knowledge and skills related to scientific literacy, so they can enhance students’ scientific literacy skills in elementary school. This recent study implicates grounding new knowledge or insights regarding the role of PLC in developing MI teacher professionalism in scientific literacy.