This study explored a mediation model among teachers of basic education on the Chinese mainland. Knowledge sharing was identified as a mediator between collective teacher efficacy and teaching innovation. 732 valid samples from the Chinese mainland were obtained. Three structured instruments were applied including a scale of collective teacher efficacy, a scale of knowledge sharing and a scale of teaching innovation. The responses were recorded using a 5-point Likert scale. Structural equation models were used to construct measurement and structural models. Collective teacher efficacy has a significant and positive predictive effect on teaching innovation and knowledge sharing. Knowledge sharing has a significant and positive predictive effect on teaching innovation and it plays a partial mediating role on the impact of teachers' collective effectiveness on teaching innovation. The mediating effect accounts for 29.03%. The results show that knowledge sharing can promote the positive impact of collective teacher efficacy on teaching innovation in basic education. This study provides new ideas for schools to improve teaching innovation that will create a new school-based learning environment for teachers to improve their professional learning and teaching practice.