UNESCO practices under the SDG4 and COVID-19 response framework: Topic modeling from 2003 to 2021
This study focused on the impacts of COVID-19 on SDG4 to resolve inequality through education and explored UNESCO's educational practices. We used text mining to analyze strategic and crisis-related reports published by UNESCO from 2003 to 2021 and LDA topic modeling analysis was used to determine their latent contexts. Two topics related to education strategies were 'sustainable development' and 'system and organization'. According to the themes, non-formal, formal and informal learning and skills and TVET topics were derived for lifelong learning, school and teacher, emergency and peace, policy and framework in the theme of crisis and conflict. Finally, latent topics during each MDGs, SDGs and COVID-19 period showed insignificant changes. However, compared to before the 2014 MDGs, strategic discourses tended to be discussed in detail. Moreover, we noted the change in global discourse from globalization to digital innovation. After the pandemic, the international community has emphasized the role of teachers and improved internet access for interaction. Such recommendations were intended to bridge the gap between countries including developing countries. As an alternative, UNESCO has suggested various partnership practices but there are nevertheless limitations that cannot be solved through a partnership or educational support. Therefore, reaching SDG4 requires global efforts to change the world by coordinating specific target countries and various social factors surrounding the countries' interior and exterior.