Literature reflects human feelings and emotions that play a significant role in the process of their lives. The purpose of the study is to clarify the role of Mahmoud Tarzi in the growth and development of contemporary literature in the country in order to motivate others to pay attention to the growth and development of this phenomenon. This study is based on review of the literature. In this review, the author collected articles and books written by prominent authors. The review of the literature revealed that Mahmoud Tarzi played a crucial role in literary, cultural, political, economic, and social transitions to the extent that he considered the founder of contemporary literature in Afghanistan. Moreover, he played a crucial role in transformation and content of classic literature.