A cluster of patients with unidentified pneumonia cause emerged among people in a city of China named Wuhan, at the end of 2019, which then by laboratory analysis, was considered to be caused by a novel coronavirus (CoV) called 2019-nCoV. It has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. By the spread of pandemic novel coronavirus, it is revealed that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is genetically related to SARS-CoV of the 2003 outbreak. However, the latest study showed that angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 is the receptor used by SARS-CoV-2 to enter into the human cells, alike its predecessor (SARS-CoV). Both excessive immune reactions and lytic effects of the virus on host cells play a central role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Commonly, the antivirals, corticosteroids, antibiotics, Immunoglobulin, and some other drugs are used as a pharmacological treatment in COVID-19 patients. Recently, the food and drug administration (FDA) has authorized the emergency use of remdesivir for the treatment of COVID-19 under an emergency use authorization (EUA). The majority of the current drugs are recommended based on the treatment of previous epidemic viruses. Due to its pandemic prevalence, and the insufficient of specifically approved drugs and vaccines, COVID-19 is becoming an emergency public health concern. Furthermore, there is a lack of comprehensive knowledge about pathogenesis and treatment of COVID-19. Thus, this review answers to the questions about pathogenesis and pharmacological treatment of COVID-19 and provide the newest information in term of the pathogenesis and pharmacological treatment of COVID-19, inclusively, and simultaneously.